C h a p t e r 1 主 語 と 動 詞
1. The great source of all light and heat is the sun .
2. The dog , seeing the stranger , began to bark .
3. The professor who teaches your class is my friend.
4. Language , although it is so common , is a very wonderful thing .
5. Often for a whole day she did not say one word.
( 1 )
One who is honest
because he has been taught that honesty is the best policy ,
will probably become dishonest when he thinks that honesty will not pay .
The watery barrier , which has existed since England began to have a history ,
has been a significant element in shaping her destiny .
We Americans are traditionally a hopeful people .
For most of us , the sense of emptiness is not a permanent mood.
Deep down in our hearts , in spite of frightening evidence to the contrary ,
we refuse to believe that our era represents the end of rational life.
1. Earnestly she asked him to stay with her .
2. In the afternoon , going home on the train , we talked about this .
3. After the war , when I lectured at Oxford ,
I found a new spirit among my listeners .
(3) A middle-aged lady , good-looking but pale
and with the marks of care and disillusionment on her face ,
accompanied by her lovely daughter , one day called on an artist
and asked him to show her his studio .
He at once put his work away and took her round his studio .
Presently , standing before a picture , she cried , “Oh , was I as beautiful as that ?”
and burst into tears . She had found the picture she was looking for .
It had been there more than twenty years .
1. A man named Wilhelm was staying at an inn .
2. His father, moved by the beauty of the scene, removed his hat and bowed his head.
( 4 ) In general , the lack of technical development means
that the majority of the country’s inhabitants do live miserably poor lives .
Sometimes , if the weather is good and the soil rich ,
as in parts of Thailand , so that clothes and shelter ,
apart from shade, are unimportant , and food is fairly easily come by,
life may not be too unendurable , if one’s wants are few.
But in places like China , where it can be very cold, very hot , very wet ,
where floods and drought alternate and the population is too large
for the amount of agricultural land available , the conditions under which many people
have had to live are so horrible that they must be seen to be believed .
I jumped into the first railway compartment which seemed empty ;
my eyes fell on a book left on the seat opposite by a previous passenger .
I took it up and ran through the first lines .
Five minutes later I was reading it as eagerly as a clue to a hidden treasure .
I learned that an ordinary person
if he has taught himself to control the way
in which his brain stores impressions can memorize accurately
long and complicated lists of facts after reading them over only once or twice .
I thought I would test the truth of the statement .
( 5 ) continue
I took a timetable out of my suitcase and began reading quietly in the manner prescribed ,
the names of about one hundred railway stations .
I observed that , after reading them over a few times ,
I could recite the whole list with hardly a mistake .
With a little more practice I found I had committed them so completely to memory
that I could remember them in the reverse order
and even pick out one station from the list and say which number it was ,
and what were the names of the towns before and after it .
C h a p t e r 2 and と but
1. Art , science and religion are the three main fields of man’s creative activity .
2. We are always suspicious and afraid of things we do not understand .
3. I loved mother and hated to disappoint her .
4. Youth is the time for making contacts and for forming tastes.
5. She has been strongly and immediately attracted to a young man .
6. Science can tell us about man’s place in the universe and his chances .
( 1 ) In choosing an occupation , you determine many things
that involve your happiness and satisfaction in life .
The home you make ,
the community in which you will live ,
the standard of living that you will maintain ,
the recreations you pursue ,
and the environment in which your children will grow up
will depend largely upon your choice of vocation .
1. New York was , and is , a city of adventurers .
2. I could not , and would not do so .
The process introduced by Pasteur is what is called ” pasteurization ,”
practiced today all over the world , especially in treating milk .
It consists in heating the liquid and keeping it for a while
at a fixed temperature high enough to destroy the germs
which cause fermentation , but not so high as to impair its food value .
1. Today we are living in a time of hope for the future of mankind ,
and of fear ; of great hope , and of great fear .
2. Biology began with observation of plants and animals useful to man .
3. At that time , and for many years afterwards ,
I hated the trouble of writing .
4. The shades of evening were already lying
on the station garden , on the platform , and on the fields .
( 3 )
It is an error to suppose that the public is indifferent to,
or unable to understand , the problems of religion and philosophy .
There are many, not only in universities and schools , but in the larger world outside ,
and especially among the workers in industrial towns ,
who are keenly alive to such questions
and determined to think them over for themselves.
1. Work with , and not against , nature .
2. A great many minerals are useful to and essential for health .
3. We can produce electricity and use it so as to make it our servant .
( 4 ) Troops went by the house and down the road
and the dust they raised powdered the leaves of the trees .
The trunks of the trees too were dusty and the leaves fell early that year
and we saw the troops marching along the roads
and the dust rising
and leaves , stirred by the breeze , falling
and the soldiers marching
and afterward the road bare and white except for the leaves .
1. I watched the elephant beating a bunch of grass against his knees and stuffing it into his mouth .
2. Man saw the sun , the moon , and the stars revolve about the earth .
3. He often loaned money to people and saw the money wasted or the debt forgotten.
In the beauty of flower and sunset ,
in the happy and perfect movement of young animals
and in the delight of ten thousand various landscapes ,
we have some hints of what life can do for us ,
and in some few works of plastic and pictorial art , in some great music ,
in a few noble buildings and happy gardens, we have a hint
of what the human will can do with material possibilities .
( 6 )
A hunter in Siberia lost his way in a snowstorm , and
, after wandering blindly about for some time , fell into a bear-pit .
It was one of his own traps .
Though he was slightly injured and a good deal shaken ,
he managed to pick himself up ; and to make the best of it , lighted a cigar .
When he had been there some time , a bear fell into the pit
with a fearful crash . Presently he saw its fiery eyes in the darkness .
All he could do was to strike a match , in the hope of frightening the beast .
The plan succeeded ;
the bear , in terror , rose up on his hindlegs and the hunter shot him dead .
1. He watched jealously her companionship with others ; and though he knew
it was unreasonable could not help saying bitter things to her .
2. This work became the daily ,
and with many the only , reading of our people .
3. From the standpoint of geography, and to a less extent, historically and politically,
England and Wales are usually considered as one country.
C h a p t e r 3 副 詞 節 の 構 造
1. Because I trust him , I have appointed him .
2. I was flattered that she wanted to speak to me ,
because of all the older girls I admired her most .
3. He has nothing to live on , because whenever he had a good job ,
he spent all the money he earned and never saved anything .
4 He didn’t want to marry while studying .
( 1 )
Sometimes young people are puzzled or bored by certain great books
simply because they lack the maturity of mind necessary to understand them.
This difficulty is one that will correct itself
if only the young readers go on reading and growing mentally.
1. He lost his position simply because he refused to tell a lie.
2. We often see a flash of lightning long before we hear the thunder .
( 2 )
As civilization progresses and the ways of living change with the progress ,
more and more words are added , enriching the vocabulary ,
till today the English language contains nearly four hundred thousand words
while a little over a hundred years ago it contained less than a hundred thousand .
1. As years went on , he grew merrier . 2. He came up as I was speaking .
3. The noise grew fainter and fainter , till it was heard no more.
4. While we were speaking, he said nothing.
Dr. K. , who studied the mentality of apes and their capacity to learn ,
found that a chimpanzee , when confronted by the sight of fruit outside his cage,
would use a stick to reach it only if the stick were in the same field of vision
—- that is , if both the stick and the fruit were visible at the same time .
If the fruit were in front and the stick behind ,
the animal could not connect the two together in his mind .
1. When gambling , think of your mother , and when drinking , think of your wife .
2. When asked his opinion , he remained silent .
3. Spiders , though not generally popular , are true friends of man.
4. It is the main room of the house , though not the best .
5. While in school I was always praised for being punctual .
I had been for some time filled with envy of the boys
whom I saw riding into the school grounds on their bicycles ,
and it gave a pretty opportunity for showing off
when you entered the gateway without holding on to the handles.
I had persuaded my uncle to let me have one
at the beginning of the summer holidays , and though my aunt was against it ,
since she said I should only break my neck ,
he had yielded to my desire more willingly
because I was of course paying for it out of my own money .
There is a vague popular belief that lawyers are necessarily dishonest . I say vague ,
because when we consider how much lawyers are trusted by the general public,
we cannot say that their impression of dishonesty is very distinct and vivid .
Yet the impression is common , almost universal .
Let no young man choosing to be a lawyer yield to the popular belief .
Resolve to be honest at all events ;
and if in your own judgment you cannot be an honest lawyer ,
resolve to be honest without being a lawyer .
At first I was much hindered in my work
by being unable to find natives who could serve as interpreters and orderlies .
The first who showed himself worth anything was one who had been a cook ,
Joseph Azowanani by name , who stayed with me , though I could not pay him
so much as he had earned in his former calling .
He gave me some valuable hints about how to deal with the natives ,
though upon the one which he thought the most important I was unable to act .
He advised me to refuse as patients those whose lives we were not likely to save .
Again and again he held up to me the example of the fetish doctors
who would have nothing to do with such cases ,
in order to endanger as little as possible their reputation as helpers.
Chapter 4 修 飾 節
1. He is a man that is trustworthy. 2. This is the thing that I can do.
3. The hotel at which we are staying is very cheap.
4. We must not overlook the fact that he has worked hard for us for a long time.
( 1 )
We require clothing in summer, to protect the skin from the heat of the sun.
Those clothes are the best for this purpose which reflect or throw off external heat most.
For Study 1. Is there anything else that puzzles you?
2. There is a pleasure in painting which only painters know.
3. The Greek civilization was the first, so far as we know , which was not ruled by gods and priests.
4. Nothing should be done in a hurry that can be done slowly.
( 2 )
I am ready to confess that my dislike of certain strangers is usually entirely absurd.
Quite a number of my best friends are people who
, when I knew them only by sight or repute, filled me with loathing.
1. The man with an income of millions experiences life in a different way from the man
who to satisfy one costly wish has to sacrifice another.
2. There is something in all of us that as we grow older seems to encourage us to reflect on our past.
( 3 )
The word “day” really means the time during which the earth is lit up by the sun
but it has also come to mean the time which the earth takes to revolve,
as from sunrise to sunrise, sunset to sunset, midday to midday.
1. Mr. Green, from whom I have piano lessons, is a good teacher.
2. They came to a small place over which the trees on the sides of the mountain made a cover.
3. They admired the courage with which she bore her loss.
4. These are the dictionaries that I can never do without.
( 4 )
Every month when the bills came in, there was trouble.
Mother seemed to have no great extravagances. But she loved pretty things.
She had a passion for china, for instance.
She saw hundreds of beautiful cups and saucers that it was hard to walk away from and leave.
She knew she couldn’t buy them, and mustn’t, but every so often she did.
For Study 1. This is the book which he is fond of reading.
2. They did something which God told them not to do.
3. Sometimes my mother read to me little stories that she knew I should understand.
( 5 )
The few Japanese films that we in Britain have so far had a chance to see
have deservedly earned high praise. It would be well to remember, however,
that the Japanese , like the French and the Italians, make a great many pictures,
the majority of which do not merit a showing outside their countries of origin,
and we are apt therefore to think all foreign films better than our own.
1. He wrote many books, some of which you will read when you are older.
2. Pick out a chair the legs of which are broken.
( 6 )
There are some people who believe that the name given to an infant
has a powerful influence on its later life.
Obviously, when American parents name their first-born son Homer
they are filled with the hope that they have presented him
with one of the first essentials of genius. It is in the same spirit that parents used to bestow
the name Christian on their sons. I have known some of these Christians in their teens
and I confess I could see few signs that the name had played any part in forming their character.
1. The news that he was coming home gave us pleasure.
2. All religion is based on the belief that human nature is capable of a change for the better.
Chapter 5 倒 置 の 諸 形 式
1. Never did I dream of it. 2. There comes an end to all things.
3. Happy is the child who has such a mother. 4. Along the road walked an old man.
5. This Lincoln did when he was very young.
( 1 )
Not until one has seen the inside of a Japanese home , we are told ,
can one realize how important art is to them .
Their simple homes are arranged beautifully.
1. I am not rich, nor do I wish to be.
2. Not till then did I realize the danger of the situation.
( 2 )
Perhaps even more interesting than the number of women employed in American business and industry
is the fact that they own 70 to 80 per cent of all national wealth.
These figures are accounted for in part by the fact that women survive men.
１. A painter , sculptor , architect , physicist and philosopher was Leonardo and in each supreme.
2. Around the lakes are many iron and copper mines.
( 3 )
The manager of the office was a hard-working man who never arrived late and never left early:
He was honest , clean , well―dressed , and cleaver. But one very important ｑuality
in men of good position he had never learned, and that quality was politeness.
He never took the trouble to be polite ; he never considered the feelings of his staff.
1. How much was destroyed by the war we shall never know.
2. This threat he was quite unable to carry out.
3. All these complaints he had to listen to.
( 4 )
Each individual before doing anything must decide for himself
and at his own risk what he is going to do. But this decision is impossible
unless one possesses certain convictions
concerning the nature of things around one , the nature of other men, of oneself.
Only in the light of such convictions can one prefer one act to another , can one , in short , live.
1. Only once in those long years did my father return.
2. Only if a Frenchman understands English well and has read much English poetry
can he appreciate Shakespeare.
( 5 )
When a person has a liberty,
it does not mean that he can go and break all the windows
in his neighbor’s house or borrow a bus for two or six weeks.
What it does mean is that he can do what he wishes within certain rights and laws of the country.
There always has to be some sort of limit to liberty in anybody’s life ;
that is why policemen patrol the streets so as to keep the peace and prevent crime.
1. There has been no war between the two nations.
2. There comes an end to all things.
3. There happened to be no one in the house.
4. There once lived in this house a very interesting old man.
( 6 )
Originally poetry and music were not separated from each other
and from the art of bodily motion , dancing.
The father of song, music, and dancing was that savage who first clapped hands
and leapt and shouted in time at some festival of their tribe. Ｆrom the clapping has been evolved
the whole art of instrumental music , down to the entrancing complexities of the modern symphony.
From the shout has proceeded the whole art of vocal music down to the modern opera.
From the savage leap has descended every variety of dancing.
1. At the foot of the hill country lie the great plains, stretching two thousand miles.
2. Then was committed that great crime.
3. Hemmed in between bare cliffs and hills is a green valley.
Chapter 6 意 味 上 の 主 語
1. The rain caused the weeds to grow fast. 2. I heard my name called.
3. It is necessary for us to be polite to others. 4. She complained of the room being too hot.
5 .He walked quickly to his car, his wife following him. 6 . She sat on the bench with her legs dangling.
( 1 ) Criticism is not fault―finding , it is a balanced opinion.
No statement must be made without a reason and an explanation being given.
This is necessary if it is to have a guiding influence.
To condemn without pointing the way to improvement helps nobody.
All real criticism is constructive.
1. Are you sure of his coming on time? 2. He objected to John and me joining the party.
Poetry is the greatest glory of our nation,
though we don’t often find it mentioned in the history books.
Every civilized nation has recognized that poetry is the art in which England excels.
So the fact that poetry does not help you to get on in life or to make money
is no argument for not caring about it.
1. I found him working at his desk.
2. They warned me that I should probably get my throat cut.
3. Some of the houses had their windows broken by the explosion.
( 3 )
Once upon a time , an astronomer used to go out at night to observe the stars.
One evening as he wandered about the streets with his whole attention fixed on the sky ,
he fell into a deep well. When he cried for help, a neighbor ran to the well,
and learning what had happened, said to him, ‘Why, in striving to pry into what is in heaven,
do you not manage to see what is on earth ?“
1. I can’t write with you standing there.
2. He fell asleep with his candle lit.
3. He came out with his hat in his hand.
( 4 )
The first star to come out in the evening is called the Evening Star ,
but strictly speaking it is not a star at all ; it is a planet. Planets are different from the stars.
They do not give off any light of their own but shine by reflecting the sunlight that falls on them.
There are nine of these large planets traveling around the sun , the earth being one of them.
1. Their conversation being in Chinese , I did not understand one word.
2. They worked in silence, each lost in his own thought.
3. She said her prayers at home, her heart full of love and tenderness.
4. He stood in front of me, his hands in his pockets.
( 5 )
Men can undertake and accomplish a common task
only when one of them continually directs the activities of all towards the same end.
This is self-evident when actions which must follow a rhythm are involved.
It would be useless for a gang of men laying rails or a rowing―crew to exert themselves
if a foreman or a coxswain did not control their movements.
Every non―directed collective action turns rapidly into confusion and disorder.
1. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes.
2. Here is a new book for you to read.
3. He stood aside for her to enter.
4. He was anxious for them to get married.
( 6 )
The Nile, the source of their livelihood , would overflow its banks and supply water to the ground
so that their crops could grow. To be able to predict when the Nile would rise became
a vital concern of the ancient Egyptians. Their priests noticed
that when a very bright star rose above the horizon concurrently with the sun,
they could expect the river to follow within a matter of days.
The importance of the Nile in their lives led the priests to study more carefully the motions of the sun.
1. They have developed languages which enable them to think better than barbarians.
2. The essence of teaching is to get people to think for themselves.
3. He felt his hands tremble. 4. Please have the porter carry these boxes up to my room.